Biology (BIO)

BIO 100  Concepts of Biology  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 100A  Biology Discussion Group  (0 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 101  General Biology I  (4 credits)  

This is the first half of a one-year course designed to give the science major an understanding of general biological principles. Topics include: cell structure and function, mitosis, meiosis, molecular processes in cells (enzyme functions, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, DNA structure protein synthesis) and basic concepts of development, and genetics. Students are required to attend all departmental seminars.

Course Rotation: Fall, Spring, and Summer.
Prerequisites: College Preparatory Mathematics. Foundation Course. 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours per week. For Biology Majors and students in the Clinical Laboratory Science and Allied Health tracks. For New York City sections only, students must register for one of the BIO 101A discussion sections.
BIO 101A  Biology Discussion Group  (0 credits)  

Small group, peer-facilitated workshops reinforce concepts presented in BIO 101 lecture and focus on learning strategies and problem solving skills.

Course Rotation: TBA.
Prerequisites: Students must register for one BIO 101 lecture and for one BIO 101 lab section. 1 hour per week.
BIO 101B  General Biology I - Discussion Group  (0 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 102  General Biology II  (4 credits)  

(3 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours per week. Foundation Course). This continuation of BIO 101 surveys the five kingdoms, highlighting major phyla of biota. Mechanisms for maintaining individual and species homeostasis in plants and animals, including physiological, behavioral, and reproductive strategies will be examined. Students will also be introduced to basic concepts of evolutionary biology, ecology, and population biology. Students must also attend department seminars.

Course Rotation: Fall, Spring, and Summer.
BIO 102A  General Biology II - Discussion Group  (0 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 103  The Biology of Sexual Reproduction  (3 credits)  

In this course, we will explore the biological basis for sexual reproduction with a focus on human reproduction. We will discuss reproductive issues of social and societal importance including hormonal birth control, stem cells, and infertility, as well as environmental impacts on reproduction and fetal origins of adult disease.

Course Rotation: Fall
BIO 110  The Biological World  (3 credits)  

This course presents and illustrates the main principles of organization, function, perpetuation, and evolution of living forms.

Course Rotation: Fall, Spring, and Summer.
BIO 110A  The Biological World - Discovery Program  (1 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 111  Human Biology  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 113  Heredity, Genes and Society  (3 credits)  

A discussion of the fundamental principles of human genetics. Mendelian inheritance, mutations, effects of radiations, linkage, crossing-over, the Hardy-Weinberg Law, and heredity-environmental interaction. Discussion of the problems facing society brought about by advances in genetics.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 114  Evolution  (3 credits)  

Survey of the evidence for the process and mechanism of evolution. Not open to biology majors.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 115  Human Sexuality  (3 credits)  

This course provides a balance of biological and behavioral aspects of human sexuality using a multidisciplinary approach. Anatomical and physiological correlates, STDs and the human immune system, and pregnancy/conception/developmental issues will be highlighted.

Course Rotation: PLV: Fall and Spring.
BIO 115P  Human Sexuality  (3 credits)  

This Learning Community provides a balance of biological and behavioral aspects of human sexuality using a multidisciplinary approach. Anatomical and physiological correlates, STDs and the human immune defense system, and pregnancy/conception/developmental issues will be highlighted. Goals of the Learning Community include familiarizing students with major findings and theoretical perspectives, and to understand how these ideas can be applied in order to understand a variety of social situations.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 116  Genes and Society  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 117  Human Biology and Disease  (3 credits)  

A survey of the causes, symptoms, and history of infection, nutritional and genetic diseases in humans, and their importance in society. Includes basic information concerning the anatomy and physiology of the human body.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 118  Science as Inquiry and Analysis  (3 credits)  

This course provides an introduction to the methods of reasoning in the context of scientific inquiry with the aim of improving the ability to critically evaluate information. Reasoning will be explored from basic observation and evaluation of different types of scientific hypotheses using case studies from the history of science.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 119  Biology of Human Development  (3 credits)  

The course deals with the biological development and changes that take place from the time of conception to the birth of the new individual. It also includes consideration of the social implications of techniques such as karyotyping, amniocentesis, in vitro fertilization and the preservation of human embryos by freezing.

Course Rotation: TBA.
Prerequisites: Not open to Biology majors.
BIO 120  Field Biology  (4 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 121  Biology of Everyday Life  (3 credits)  

An introduction to various biological concepts through applications to common activities and current issues. Selected topics will be chosen from various fields of biological and allied health science to illustrate principles and history of biology and its impact upon our lives. Topics, which change based upon relevant issues, may include the followring: toxicology, nutrition, and health; sustainability of the earth.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 121H  The Biology of Everyday Life: Living in Your Environment  (3 credits)  

An introduction to various biological concepts through applications to common activities and current issues. In this course, topics include air quality, water resource, land use and environmental sustainability.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 122  Zoo Biology  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 123  Biology and Contemporary Society  (4 credits)  

This course emphasizes the interdependence of biological systems to each other and to the environment in general. Discussions include topics such as evolution, plant and animal classification and structure, and concepts of bioethics. Students will be expected to discuss specific issues that impact biological systems, including humans.

Course Rotation: NY and PL: Fall, Spring, and Summer.
BIO 124  Introduction to Neuroscience  (3 credits)  

This course is designed for Undeclared and Non-Science Majors interested in exploring Biology and Neuroscience through lecture and lab activities centered on the nervous system. The course is designed to fulfill the prerequisites for Neurobiology (BIO 325) - a required course in the Neuroscience Minor sequence. This course also fulfills the Science lab core requirement

Course Rotation: NY; Fall
BIO 125  Biological Aspects of Nutrition  (3 credits)  

A study of the role nutrition plays in biological systems, microorganisms, plants, and animals. The structure and function of related organs and cellular organelles will be emphasized as well as the relationship between nutrient utilization and the physiological activities of the entire organism.

Course Rotation: Fall and Spring.
BIO 127  Microbes in our lives-Friend or Foe?  (3 credits)  

This survey course introduces topical aspects of microbiology and examines the ubiquitous microbial world and its challenging impact on human life throughout history. The principles of microbial diversity, disease and prevention, antibiotic resistance, vaccination, biological warfare and global public health issues are explored. Current issues where microbes play a central role provide this basis for discussion.

Course Rotation: PLV, Spring
BIO 130  Introduction to Environmental Biology and Conservation  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 152  Anatomy and Physiology I  (4 credits)  

3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours per week. This is the first half of a two-semester course in the structure and function of the human body. Emphasis is given to the cell as the basic structural and functional unit of the body and the organization of cells into tissues and organ systems. Organ systems include the skeletal, muscular, nervous, digestive, respiratory, blood vascular, lymphatic, urogenital, and endocrine.

Course Rotation: Fall, Spring, and Summer
BIO 152A  Anatomy and Physiology I - Discussion Group  (0 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 153  Anatomy and Physiology II  (4 credits)  

This is the second half of a two-semester course in the structure and function of the human body. Organ systems include digestive, respiratory, blood, vascular, lymphatic, urogenital, endocrine, and reproductive. Course rotation: Fall, Spring, Summer

BIO 153A  Anatomy and Physiology II - Discussion Group  (0 credits)  
Prerequisites: None.
BIO 155  Human Biology  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 165  Introduction to the Microbiology of Foods  (3 credits)  

An introductory course in microbiology with emphasis on the role of microorganisms in nature and in foods. Topics covered include food spoilage, food preservation, and food poisoning. The laboratory is designed to reinforce topics covered in the lecture. Not for biology major credit. Course rotation: NYC: TBA

BIO 166  Horticulture  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 170  Spaceship Earth: Issues of Sustainability  (3 credits)  

This course examines the environmental issues shaping national and international agendas. The study of environmental problems will analyze issues of sustainability by examining the interdependence of biological, sociological, cultural, economic, and political aspects of conservation biology. Students evaluate environmental problems and use collaborative learning to explore creative solutions.

Course Rotation: PLV: TBA.
BIO 170P  Spaceship Earth: Issues of Sustainability  (3 credits)  

These linked courses are based in discussion and activities. Students investigate the way human influence impacts our natural environment and how our actions are influenced by our beliefs and perceived needs. Test and media analysis undertaken by students will explore ecological issues shaping local, national, and international perspectives. The course will also evaluate environmental problems and use collaborative learning to explore creative solutions. A review of fundamental concepts is provided by: "Living in the Environment". G.T. Miller (12th) ed. (2002) Wadsworth Group NYC and "Nature & Culture: A Study of Connections".

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 196P  Topics: Prescription for Addiction  (3 credits)  

This course is designed to offer insight into the anatomical, biochemical and pathological changes that occur when psychoactive drugs are introduced into the human body via various methods of delivery. Discussions will focus on the stimulants, including cocaine and amphetamines; depressants, including opioids, sedatives and alcohol and those that can act as stimulants or depressants, including LSD, marijuana and the designer drugs. Students will gain knowledge of the prescription drug epidemic, the effects of over-the-counter medications and the lethal consequences of drug interactions. The pharmacological classification of these drugs and their historical emergence in our human culture will also be addressed.

Course Rotation: PLV: Intersession, Summer.
BIO 196X  Climate Change  (3 credits)  

This course will provide students with a multidisciplinary exploration of global climate change. We will address major physical components of the Earth’s climate system, natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change, scientific evidence of change, consequences for the natural world and humanity, and proposed solutions (including those related to energy policy and others articulated in international agreements such as the Paris Accord). We will also discuss economic arguments (pro and con) for tackling the rise in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as political, cultural and psychological/sociological factors that contribute to the contentious nature of discourse on the problem..

Course Rotation: Fall, Spring, and Summer.
BIO 199A  Introduction to Workplace Safety and Health  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 199B  Environmental Biology  (3 credits)  

This course presents an overview of environmental issues from a biological perspective. The effects of air, water and ground pollution on the biosphere will be discussed as will current issues related to diversity, such as global climate change.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 199C  Topic: Comparative Biology of Cells  (3 credits)  

This course will provide a discussion of the comparative biology of cell types from invertebrates to vertebrates.

BIO 199D  Topic: Science, Nature and Technology: The Influence of the Renaissance on the Modern Era  (3 credits)  

This course covers the History of Science from the Reniassance to the Modern Era and counts as a lab science requirement of the core.

BIO 199L  Topics in Biology: Toxicology - The Science of Poisons  (3 credits)  

This course presents an overview of the study of how chemicals affect the human body. It reviews the history of the field from ancient times when poisons were used to change the leadership of empires, to modern times when they have been used in clandestine operations. Some basic concepts related to poisons are studied, such as the premise that the "ose makes the poison" and that all chemicals are toxic depending upon the extent of exposure. Students are introduced to major classes of toxic materials. Other topics include poisons in natural food and in the natural world, how chemical exposure is reulated by governmental laws, and indoor chemicals that can affect health.

BIO 199S  Introduction to Workplace Safety and Health  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 205  Concepts of Environmental Science  (3 credits)  

This course provides an introduction to the basic concepts of environmental biology, chemistry and physics as they relate to an understanding of the sources of pollutants, both natural and those generated by human activities, their transport, fate, and levels in environmental media, namely air, water, soil, and food. Principles involved in processes such as chemical cycling within the living world, global weather patterns, and atmospheric energy balances will be addressed as they relate to these concepts. Hazard recognition and control are also discussed in terms of toxicology, epidemiology, exposure assessment, and risk assessment.

Course Rotation: Fall.
BIO 210  Ecology  (4 credits)  

An introduction to the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms in the natural world. Fundamental ecological concepts at the level of individuals, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the global environment will be discussed. Interactions among organisms will be examined. Application of ecological concepts to current environmental and conservation related issues will be presented. Laboratory periods will be devoted to field work.

Course Rotation: Fall
BIO 212  Human Disease and Disorders  (4 credits)  

This course is designed to provide a basic understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying and the clinical manifestations of major human diseases and disorders. It provides a linkage between sciences and the clinical presentation of disease states.

Prerequisites: A grade of C- or better in BIO 102.New Core: Fulfills 4 credits in Area of Knowledge V.
BIO 215  Urban Ecology  (3 credits)  

This course explores environmental issues that specifically relate to the urban scene. The focus is on understanding basic ecological dynamics of urban and suburban areas. Topics discussed include urban flora and fauna, climate, and pollutant effects on quality of life. Specific environmental-related urban public health problems are evaluated. A combination of lecture, demonstration and field trips are used to facilitate under- standing of basic concepts. Course rotation: NYC: Fall

BIO 218  Genetically Modified Organisms  (3 credits)  

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMLO) have been a source of debate especially over the last decade as more and more of the worlds cropland is planted with genetically modified plants. Explore GMLOs from food plants to animal "pharming" where this same DNA technology is applied to animals such that they produce large amounts of human proteins, vaccines, and other substances for medical use. We will investigate various literatures for the social, economic, political, and environmental impact issues surrounding this technology.

Course Rotation: Online: Fall.
Prerequisites: Listed prerequisite, and student must me a Biology or Chemistry or Environmental Studies major with approval.
BIO 220U  Human Biology and Contemporary Society - Learning Community  (4 credits)  

This course is an issue and project based science course. Small and large-group discussions of issues that impact human biology and/or learning from the practical, theoretical and political standpoints will be the focus. It emphasizes the interdependence of human, plant and animal biology and the environment. This course will function as a seminar and hands-on laboratory workshop - with assighed readings from journals, periodicals and the internet. Students will be expected to choose an issue to further research and present their findings as a poster board and/or class presentation.

BIO 221  Botany  (4 credits)  

A discussion of the interrelationships, evolutionary development, and taxonomy of representative plants from the major divisions of the plant kingdom. Emphasis is on morphology as it relates to function, economic importance and classification.

Course Rotation: TBA.
Prerequisites: A grade of C- or better in BIO 102.
BIO 224  Introduction to Veterinary Medicine II  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 231  Genetics  (4 credits)  

This course is designed to provide the student with a working knowledge of classical genetics and an understanding of the current concept of the gene. Human genetics, gene action, and population genetics are also considered.

Course Rotation: Fall.
Prerequisites: BIO 101 with a grade of C- or better. Pre or Co-requisite: BIO 102 with a grade of C- or better. 3 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours per week.
BIO 232  Developmental Biology  (4 credits)  

An analysis of morphogenetic processes with emphasis on the structural and biochemical aspects of vertebrate embryogenesis.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 233  Fundamentals of Histology and Histopathology  (4 credits)  

A study of the cellular structure of vertebrate tissues, with emphasis on the relationship between structure and function and changes related to various disease states. Laboratory exercises acquaint the student with both classical staining methods and modern immunohistochemical techniques. Course rotation: TBA

BIO 236  Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy  (4 credits)  

An introduction to the diversity of vertebrate forms. Structural and physiological adaptations will be related to evolutionary history. Laboratories mainly devoted to dissection of animals representative of major classes of vertebrates. Course rotation: TBA

BIO 237  Biological Oceanography and Marine Biology  (3 credits)  

This course is an intensive overview of oceanography from the biological perspective emphasizing the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components of the marine environment. Specific topics include marine species of plants and animals, marine microbiology, food webs, energy flow and marine habitats.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 242  Primate Behavior  (4 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 243  General Endocrinology  (4 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 250  Environmental Maping with Computers using GEO. I.S.  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 251  Principles of Human Anatomy  (4 credits)  

3 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours per week. This course provides a systemic approach to the study of the human body. Discussion of anatomical terminology, cellular processes and tissue classification is followed by study of the gross and microscopic anatomy of each of the organ systems. Laboratory exercises will reinforce lecture concepts through the use of anatomical and skeletal models, histological slides and cat dissection.

Course Rotation: Fall
Prerequisites: BIO 102, CHE 112 or 104. Open only to Biology majors, students in the Physician Assistant or Allied Health tracks, or with permission of the Chair.
BIO 254  Basic Microbiology  (4 credits)  

Basic course in microbiology dealing with causative agents of human diseases. Other topics include chemotherapy, host-parasite relationships, and the basis of the immune process. Laboratory includes culturing, primary identification, antibiotic, and biochemical tests. This course is intended for Nursing majors, and not open to Biology majors.

Course Rotation: Spring
BIO 264  Microbiology  (4 credits)  

An introduction to the study of microorganisms. Topics include microbial genetics, chemotherapy, and host-parasite relationships. Laboratory techniques include isolation and culturing, antibiotic and biochemical tests, as well as microbiological assays.

Course Rotation: Spring, and Summer.
BIO 280  Laboratory Animal Science  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 281  Botany  (4 credits)  

An overview of the interrelationships, evolutionary development and taxonomy of representative species from the major divisions of the plant kingdom. Photosynthesis and respiratory will be discussed along with other physiological processes and morphology will be presented as it relates to function and taxonomic classification. Economic importance of plants and current topics such as biotechnology will be presented from an ecological and environmental impact perspective. Course rotation: NYC: TBA

BIO 292  Biology Laboratory Research Training  (0 credits)  

As may be agreed upon by the student and the faculty supervisor, students may be trained in such things as the development and implementation of a hypothesis; the creation of experimental design; the performance of experiments; the role of primary scientific literature; the critical analysis of scientific data; and the reporting of scientific data. The specific experiences of a student will vary depending upon the student’s interests and the faculty supervisor’s research expertise.

Course Rotation: NY and PL: Fall, Spring, and Summer.
Prerequisites: Permission of the chairperson of Biology and Health Sciences department required. Open to all Biology, Chemistry, Physical Sciences, pre-OT, pre-PT, pre-Optometry, pre-Podiatry, Clinical Lab Sciences, and Forensic Science majors only.
BIO 294  Internship in Biology I  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 296C  The Neurobiology of Alzheimer's Disease  (3 credits)  

Memories are, arguably, our most prized possessions. They are an integral part of our identities and influence our choices and decisions. The unraveling of memories that occurs in Alzheimer’s makes this neurodegenerative disease so particularly devastating for the patient and for their friends and family. More than five million Americans are currently diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, with an expectation that this number will continue to rise in the upcoming decades. While there is no current cure, our understanding of the disease and its underlying mechanisms has greatly expanded in recent years. This course will explore the clinical manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease, its progression, risk factors, neural circuits involved, molecular pathways involved, the current status of drug discovery, and the disease’s greater impact on society. In the process, we will also discuss the larger questions of what is known about where memories and attention are stored in the brain. Students will volunteer for 20 hours over the course of the semester at the local Alzheimer’s Association chapter of Hudson valley to meet achieve their civic engagement. This course is a Biology elective course and is designed to fulfill the writing enhanced and civic engagement requirements (formerly AOK1).

Course Rotation: PLV: Fall
BIO 297J  Tpics: Habitats of the Hudson Valley: Identification and Assessment  (3 credits)  

This intensive field course will focus on the techniques and tools environmental scientists use to study current issues in conservation. Students will assess the local environment by collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data from local field sites. Classes will consist of short lectures, field activities, and group discussions. Students will learn to identify local ecological communities including indicator plant and animal species as well as threats to these groups. Participants should feel comfortable spending long periods outdoors in a variety of weather conditions as well as hiking through uneven terrain.

Course Rotation: PLV; Fall
BIO 301  Tropical Ecosystem Assessment  (4 credits)  

This is a research-based lecture and computer lab course in which students will learn about the relationships between the biotic diversity of soil microbes in the tropics and the carbon and nitrogen cycle components. the roles they play in the ecosystems within intact and managed tropical lowland forests in Costa Rica, and how these ecosystems are impacted by land management and a changing climate. Through lectures and various readings,students will learn basic information about Microbial Ecology, Nutrient Cycles, and Tropical Ecosystems, and how they connect. Students will develop research questions and conduct research projects to address these questions using existing data sets on the DNA-based diversity of the soilmicrobes and associated carbon and nitrogen data that have been collected from different habitats in Costa Rica. In the computer lab, students will organize the bioinformatics and nutrient data, and use univariate statistical software (SPSS) to analyze the carbon and nitrogen data, and use multivariate statistical software (Primer and its add-on PERMANOVA) to conduct analyses of the data. and write a research paper on their project. Grades will be based on participation in the classroom, successful analysis and interpretation of their data as shown by a detailed outline for their paper-including critical findings and interpretations .and a final paper and presentation.

Course Rotation: NYC: Fall
BIO 305  Evolutionary Biology  (3 credits)  

This course will provide a comprehensive introduction to the current field of evolutionary biology, including the theoretical background as well as an introduction to current research in experimental evolution. By the end of this course you should be able to see how evolution provides a framework for the broader field of biology, and have a basic understanding of the major topics in evolutionary biology: the theory of evolution by natural selection, the history of evolutionary thought, population genetics, sexual and kin selection, evolutionary trees/phylogenies, how new species form, and human evolution. Lectures will cover a variety of topics within the field of evolutionary biology. We will examine the theoretical basis of these various topics in detail and break that theoretical basis down into its underlying components. We will also examine how evolutionary theory can be applied to real- world examples, particularly in issues relevant to medicine, agriculture, conservation, and sociology.

Course Rotation: NYC: Fall, odd years. PLV: Fall, odd years.
BIO 306  Advanced Microbiology  (3 credits)  

A survey of the topic of microbial pathogenesis. Concepts examined include mechanisms of microbial invasion, disease mechanisms, host response to infection, virulence, drug resistance, and immunity. Viral as well as bacterial pathogens are discussed.

Course Rotation: Spring.
BIO 307  Microbial Ecology  (4 credits)  

This course is a study of microorganisms in the environment. It will focus on the physiology and metabolism, ecology, and functional diversity of some of the more common microorganisms. Students will be introduced to the domains of Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and viruses, compare and contrast their morphological and physiological characteristics, and their role in ecology, along with the biogeochemical cycles.

Course Rotation: Fall
BIO 321  Developmental Biology  (3 credits)  

The goal of this course is to introduce students to the broad field of developmental biology. A particular emphasis is the intimate connection between developmental biology and evolution, which will be a theme throughout the course. Additional emphasis is on the connection between mechanisms of normal development and disease etiology. The course will cover general principles of development and current important issues. Relevant ethical issues will be discussed. Both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems will be covered, including Drosophila, C, elegans, chick, frog, zebrafish, mice and human. Another emphasis of the course is to teach you how to experimentally approaching the topic of development. We will therefore emphasize how to formulate and test hypotheses. Students will become familiar with cutting edge molecular, genetic and imaging techniques that are applicable to analysis of many aspects of development.

Course Rotation: PLV; Fall
BIO 322  Animal Behavior  (4 credits)  

An introduction to the mechanisms and adaptive significance of animal behavior. Fundamental principles derived from evolution, ecology, neurobiology, and development will be examined. Activities such as navigation and orientation, migration, feeding, echolocation, communication, predator-prey interactions, mating systems and parental care will be discussed using examples throughout the animal kingdom. Course rotation: TBA

BIO 325  Neurobiology  (3 credits)  

A comprehensive study of how the nervous system functions. The course will first provide as in depth foundation on the function of neurons including the cell biology of neurons, nerve cell communication and the action potential, synapse structure and function, nerve cell specializations including axons and dendrites, how small circuits of neurons are formed and how they function. Having established this basic understanding of nervous system function we will then study a selection of other topics in detail, focusing on how our knowledge is being built though experimental neuroscience. These topics will include synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, the function of larger scale neuronal systems (in particular, the visual system), and the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

Course Rotation: NY; PLV, Spring
BIO 326  Principles of Biochemistry  (4 credits)  

Study of structure and biological function of proteins, enzymes, and coenzymes. Enzyme kinetics; metabolism - glycolysis, TCA cycle, lipid degradation, amino acid degradation, electron transport; nucleic acids - RNA and DNA Replication, transcription, genetic code, protein synthesis.

Course Rotation: TBA.
Prerequisites: Open only to Biology majors with permission of Chair.
BIO 326B  Biochemistry (Laboratory Only)  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 327  Cellular Biochemistry  (4 credits)  

This course expands the basic knowledge base obtained in BIO 335. Topics include protein structure and function, enzyme kinetics, signal transduction, metabolism and gene expression. The concepts discussed will be applied to pathological situations using medical case studies and the scientific literature related to relevant disease states so a to obtain an understanding of the contribution of biochemical processes to both health and disease. Course rotation: Fall.

BIO 328  Advanced Biochemistry  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 334  General Physiology  (4 credits)  

An examination of the fundamental phenomena underlying the function and regulation of organ systems in animals, such as contraction, excitation, conduction, secretion, and membrane function. Laboratory exercises illustrate these processes.

Course Rotation: Spring
BIO 335  Molecular and Cellular Biology  (4 credits)  

This course provides an in-depth investigation of molecular mechanisms within the cell, including transcription, translation, energy conversion, cell signaling, molecular transport, cytoskeletal and extracellular structure, cell division, and cancer development. Laboratory exercises will involve techniques widely used in cell and molecular biology.

Course Rotation: Spring.
BIO 335A  Molecular and Cellular Biology  (1 credits)  

This practicum will provide students with additional time in the inquiry-based BIO 335 laboratory to design and implement their own experiments.

BIO 336  Genomics  (4 credits)  

This course will explore contemporary and emerging topics in genome research. Emphasis will be on how new technologies are revolutionizing the way we think about genetics. Topics will include genomic organization, next-generation sequencing technology, bioinformatics for sequence data, comparative genomics and genome-wide association studies, whole-genome transcriptional analysis and new advances in epigenetic research.

Course Rotation: Fall, Spring, and Summer
Prerequisites: C- or better in both BIO 231 and BIO 335. 3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory
BIO 337  Forensic Biology  (4 credits)  

This course provides a background in the fundamentals of body fluid identification and subsequent laboratory analysis. Discussions include current methods of forensic DNA analysis, interpretation of use of DNA in historical investigations and practical aspects of disaster identification processes. Course rotation: NYC: Spring

BIO 343  General Endocrinology  (3 credits)  

A study of endocine hormones, including both classical hormones and recently discovered hormones and growth factors. The origin of these regulatory substances and their regulation of processes such as growth, regeneration, reproduction, blood chemistry, and metabolic rate will be discussed at the whole organism, cellular, and molecular levels.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 345  Introduction to Toxicology  (3 credits)  

An introduction to the study of the injurious effects of substances on living organisms. Consideration is given to mechanisms of entry to the body, the biochemistry of toxic substances within the body, including acute and chronic effects and long-term mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. The hazards and methods of handling toxic substances, and treatment for their effects are also considered.

Course Rotation: Fall.
BIO 346  Introduction to Basic Pharmacology  (3 credits)  

An introduction to the basic principles of pharmacology. This course provides a basic foundation in pharmacology as it relates to both health and illness. Mechanisms of drug-receptor chemical interaction and dose-response curves are examined.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 347  Pharmacology I  (3 credits)  

In this two-semester course, the student will be introduced to the basic principles of pharmacology. Concepts covered include mechanism of action, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, drug interactions, and problems with special populations, dosage, and toxicology. The first semester will emphasize basic concepts; the second semester will examine applications in the treatment of specific diseases.

Course Rotation: NYC: Fall.
Prerequisites: Open only to Physician Assistant students.
BIO 348  Pharmacology II (Clinical)  (3 credits)  

A continuation of BIO 347 that stressed the application of pharmacological agents in the treatment of specific diseases.

Course Rotation: NYC: Spring.
BIO 357  Parasitology  (3 credits)  

An examination of the biology of important protozoan and helminth parasites of vertebrates. Emphasis is placed on morphological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of parasitism. Mechanisms of action are clinically active antiparasitic agents are discussed.

Course Rotation: TBA
Prerequisites: A grade of C- or better in BIO 102 and CHE 224. 3 lecture hours per week.
BIO 358  Introduction to Virology  (3 credits)  

This course will present the basic cell and molecular biology of DNA and RNA viruses focusing specifically on mammalian viruses. Topics covered include: structure, classification, life cycle, and pathogenesis of viruses. The role of the host cell response and immune system as well as treatment options including anti-viral medication and vaccines will also be introduced. Emerging virus, virus evolution, and virus escape mechanism will also be discussed.

Course Rotation: NYC: Spring; Odd Years
BIO 359  Immunology  (4 credits)  

A study of the immune response, both humoral and cell mediated, including antigen-antibody structure and reactions, immunoglobulins and host-parasite interactions. Laboratory techniques will include current methods of immunology.

Course Rotation: Spring.
Prerequisites: BIO 102
BIO 361  Bacteriology  (4 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 372  Introduction to Molecular Biotechnology  (4 credits)  

This course provides a background in the basic theory and methods underlying molecular biotechnology. Students will also become familiar with biotechnological enterprises, the modern molecular technologies used in these enterprises and their role in research and development. Discussions and laboratories will focus on theory and examples of actual practice using both virtual and real laboratory exercises.

Course Rotation: TBA.
Prerequisites: BIO 231 and pre- or co-requisite: BIO 335. 2 lecture hours, 4 laboratory hours per week.
BIO 375  Advanced Cell Biology  (3 credits)  

An in-depth investigation of advanced cellular and molecular biology concepts, including receptor ligand interactions, cell division, senescence, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastatic and signal transduction. Current biomedical literature will be used in class discussions.

Course Rotation: Spring.
BIO 390  Honors Project in Biology  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 395  Independent Study in Biology  (1-4 credits)  

Students may select a topic for guided research that is not included in the regular course offerings. The student meets regularly with the faculty member to review progress. A paper must be submitted.

Course Rotation: Fall, Spring, Summer
Prerequisites: BIO 490. Junior standing and a minimum CQPA of 3.00 and permission of Department Chair.
BIO 395A  Independent Study in Biology (A)  (1-9 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 395B  Independent Study in Biology (B)  (1-9 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 395C  Independent Study in Biology (C)  (1-9 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 396  Guided Study in Biology  (1-3 credits)  

Students may select a special topic for individual library based study under the guidance of an appropriate faculty member. This can be taken only if the curriculum offers no formal course covering the material or if the student wishes to study a topic in greater depth than offered in a formal course. There is no minimum QPA for this course. Students meet at least weekly with the instructor during the course and must prepare a paper on the topic being studied.

Course Rotation: Fall, Spring, Summer
Prerequisites: Permission of Department Chair.
BIO 396A  Embryology and Animal Development  (3 credits)  

The goal of this course is to introduce students to the broad field of embryology and animal development. A particular emphasis is the intimate connection between developmental biology and evolution, which will be a theme throughout the course. Additional emphasis is on the connection between mechanism of normal development and disease etiology. The course will cover general principles of development and current important issues. Relevant ethical issues will be discuss. Both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems will be covered, including Drosophila, C. elegant, chick, frog, zebrafish, mice and human. Another emphasis of the course is to teach students how to experimentally approach the topics of development, we will therefore emphasize how to formulate and test hypotheses. Student will become familiar with cutting edge molecular, genetic and imaging techniques that are applicable to analysis of many aspects of development.

Course Rotation: PLV; fall (even years)
BIO 396L  Special Topic: Techniques in Cell and Molecular Biology Lab  (1 credits)  

This laboratory course provides techniques widely used in cell and molecular biology.

Course Rotation: PLV; Spring
Prerequisites: Student must be a transfer student into the BioChem Major and have taken the Lecture portion of BIO 335 at their transfer institution. Not open to non-transfer Pace Students.
BIO 396P  Prescription For Addiction  (3 credits)  

This course is designed to offer insight into the anatomical, biochemical and pathological changes that occur when psychoactive drugs are introduced into the human body via various methods of delivery. Discussions will focus on the stimulants, including cocaine and amphetamines; depressants, including opioids, sedatives and alcohol and those that can act as stimulants or depressants, including LSD, marijuana and the designer drugs. Students will gain knowledge of the prescription drug epidemic, the effects of over-the-counter medications and the lethal consequences of drug interactions. The pharmacological classification of these drugs and their historical emergence in our human culture will also be addressed.

Course Rotation: PLV: Intersession, Summer.
BIO 399  Topics in Biology  (3-4 credits)  

This course provides an in-depth discussion of specific areas that are not part of the regular course offerings of the Department. It may be taken more than once for credit. Specific topics vary each semester. Recent offerings are are follows: Vertebrate Nervous System; Bioinformatics; Advanced Immunology; Ecotourism and Sustainable Development; Wildlife Ecology, Urban Green Roof;Genetically Modified Organisms. . Course rotation: Specific topics are generally offered in Fall and Spring.

BIO 399A  Topic: Bacteria as Multicellular Organisms  (1 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 399B  Topics in Biology: Neurobiology  (3-4 credits)  

A comprehensive study of how the nervous system functions. The course will focus on the cell biology of neurons: nerve cell communication and the action potential; synapse structure and function; nerve cell specializations including axons and dendrites; how small circuits of neurons are formed and how they function. Other topics will include synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, the function of larger scale neuronal systems, and the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Course Rotation: TBA.
Prerequisites: A grade of C- or better for BIO 102.
BIO 399C  Topic: Cancer Cell Biology  (3-4 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 399D  Topics in Biology: Ecosystems  (3-4 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 399E  Topic: The Vertabrae Nervous System  (3-4 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 399F  Topics in Biology: Bioinformatics  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 399G  Topics in Biology: Marine Pollution  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 399H  Topics in Biology: Ecotourism and Sustainable Development  (3 credits)  

This course travels to Brazil with MGT 347. Students will review ecological problems due to tourism.

Course Rotation: TBA.
Prerequisites: BIO 102 or ENV 221 and ENV 222, and permission of Department Chair. Trip Destination: Brazil Trip Dates: Trip Cost:
BIO 399I  Fundamentals in Reproductive Biology  (4 credits)  

This lecture/laboratory course will introduce students to the biological aspects of a wide variety of issues related to reproduction and reproductive health and medicine. Students will be asked to analyze related literature and work with model systems to develop hypotheses/analyze data related to reproduction.

Course Rotation: NYC: Spring, even years.
Prerequisites: This course is open to Biology and Health Science majors only.
BIO 399J  Topics in Biology: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation  (3-4 credits)  

This course provides a review of the ecology of mammals. Topics will include ecosystems and natural communities, food and cover, predators and predation, competitors and competition, wildlife diseases, animal behavior, urban wildlife, exotic wildlife, nongame and endangered wildlife, economics of wildlife, conserving wildlife, hunting and trapping, wildlife as a public trust and other important topics that evolve. The course will review both theoretical and methodological approaches associated with obtaining data from animals.

Course Rotation: TBA.
BIO 399K  Topics in Biology: Ecotourism and Sustainability in Tuscany  (3 credits)  

This course provides an opportunity to have an interdisciplinary experience in the study of ecotourism, sustainability and business/hospitality issues in Italy. Students will visit various venues that demonstrate sustainable business and environmental practices. Students will also participate in a community green mapping project in the Mugello Territories in Tuscany.

Course Rotation: TBA.
Prerequisites: BIO 102 or ENV 221 and ENV 222 and permission of department chairperson required.
BIO 399L  Topics in Biology: The Urban Green Roof  (3 credits)  

This field type course will provide students with experience in developing plans and plantings for the urban green roof to be built on the Pace NYC campus. Students will learn the history of urban green roofs and the environmental advantages.

Prerequisites: Permission of Department Chairperson required.
BIO 399M  Topic in Biology: Biological and Chemical Warfare  (3 credits)  

An overview of chemical and biological weaponry from a historical and modern perspective.

Course Rotation: TBA.
Prerequisites: BIO 102 and permission of Department Chair.
BIO 399N  Topic: Advanced Immunology  (3 credits)  

This course provides an in-depth discussion of various topics in modern immunology.

BIO 399Q  Special Topics in Biology: Mammalogy-Adaptation, Diversity and Ecology of Mammals  (3 credits)  

This course will cover the major aspects of mammalian biology emphasizing evolution, structure, function, behavior, ecology and biogeography.

BIO 399R  Topic: Field Course in Biological Oceanography and Marine Mammals  (3 credits)  

This is a field study course that will he held at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute in Woods Hole, MA. The discussions will include aspects of marine mammal ecology and ecosystem productivity. The human influence on marine mammal species will also be addressed.

Prerequisites: BIO 102 and permission of department chairperson.
BIO 399S  Topics in Biology: Urban Field Ecology  (3 credits)  

This course studies the flora of the metropolitan habitat. Discussions will include desirable and undesirable species. Course involves lectures, field trips and student projects growing plants in an urban horticultural setting using various growth media and under various conditions.

BIO 399T  Topics in Biology: Research Methods For Ecological Field Studies  (3 credits)  

This course will review the ways in which biological data are collected, analyzed, and reported, so that informed decisions about ecosystem management and conservation can be made. The course will have both classroom and field components and will explore the many techniques employed by biologists to study important phenomena in ecology, such as territory and home range estimates, habitat evaluation, food habits, population viability analysis, population dynamics, GIS mapping, and genetic analyses. We will review both theoretical and methodological controversies associated with obtaining data from organisms.

BIO 399U  Topic: Plants and People  (3 credits)  

Plants play an important role in many cultures from essential building material to hallucinogenic plants used during traditional ceremonies. Plants have also been used to clean contaminated soils in Chernobyl and other places. Learn how people use plants for food, medicine, cosmetics, insecticides, and more.

BIO 399V  Topic: Basics of Human Anatomy  (3 credits)  

This special topics courses provides an overview of the anatomy of the human body using a systems based presentation. Virtual dissections will be included.

BIO 399Y  Topic: Marine Biology  (3 credits)  

This course presents basic concepts of marine biology and discusses the effects of human activity on animals and plants.

BIO 399Z  Topics: Evolutionary Biology  (3 credits)  

This course focuses on the processes of evolution that lead to patterns of biodiversity. Topics covered will include the history of evolutionary theory, paleontology, phylogeny and classification, inheritance, genome evolution of populations, the evolution of communities, specification, and human evolution. Particular emphasis will be paid to the role of evolution in our everyday lives and the practical implications of evolutionary theory to medicine, agriculture, and conservation biology.

Course Rotation: NYC: Fall, odd years. PLV: Fall, odd years.
BIO 480  Research in Biology  (3 credits)  

Under faculty supervision students conduct research and submit a report at the close of the semester. A maximum of 2 semesters for credit may be elected. Contact department for more information concerning requirements. Students must contact the Department Chairperson prior to registration for this course.

Course Rotation: Fall, Spring, Summer
Prerequisites: BIO 490, junior standing and permission of Department Chairperson. 8-10 hours of independent research per week and 1 conference hour.
BIO 481  Research in Biology II  (3 credits)  

This course involves laboratory based research under the direction of a faculty member and will involve 60-75 hours of research during the semester. The topic of research depends upon the faculty member. Students must contact the Department Chairperson prior to registration for this course.

Course Rotation: Fall, Spring, Summer.
Prerequisites: BIO 480 and permission of Instructor and Chair. 8-10 hours or independent research each week.
BIO 490  Introduction to Research in the Biological Sciences  (3 credits)  

An introduction to the basic research and data analysis techniques used in the modern biological sciences. Discussion topics include hypothesis generation, methods of data presentation and utilization of proper statistical techniques based upon experimental design. Students will make presentations for group discussion on current advances and research in biology.

Course Rotation: Fall.
BIO 491  Internship in Biology  (3 credits)  

A direct experience in the working environment designed to enhance and extend the knowledge gained in the classroom. The student reports to a regular assignment and receives guidance and direction from professionals. The student will work on projects requiring reports and will meet regularly with a department advisor who will provide overall supervision. Contact the department for more information concerning requirements.

Course Rotation: Fall, Spring, Summer.
Prerequisites: Acceptance in a position, junior standing and permission of Department Chair.
BIO 492  Internship in Biology II  (3 credits)  
Course Rotation: TBA.
Prerequisites: Completion of junior year. Permission of the department chairperson and acceptance in a position. A continuation of BIO 491.
BIO 493  Major Field Testing in Biology  (0 credits)  

This 0 credit, P/F course involves the administration and reporting of performance on the biology and behavioral neuroscience major comprehensive exam, the Educational Testing Service’s Major Field Test (MFT) in Biology. The examination assesses students’ basic knowledge base as well as the ability to integrate and synthesize information in biology and related sciences. It will provide excellent experience for taking professional or graduate school entrance examinations, such as the GRE biology subject tests, MCAT or DAT. Awarding of the BS degree in Biology or Behavioral Neuroscience or a BA degree in Biology requires passing this exam. Students are advised to enroll in this course after they complete the Biology or Behavioral Neuroscience major core curricula.

Course Rotation: NYC & PLV: Fall & Spring
BIO 495C  Hospital Career Training: Medical Technology  (12 credits)  

Required for B.S. in Medical Technology candidates after completion of prescribed didactic course sequence. Taken at affiliated hospital centers. Course rotation: TBA